Writing Guidelines

In-Text Ethiopic

The first occurence of an Ethiopic term or title should be accompanied by the spelling in Ethiopic characters and an English translation, if appropriate. Subsequent occurences should simply have the transliteration. See below for examples.

Terms without Translation

Magic scrolls typically include a ṭalsam (ጠልሰም፡), an image intended to protect the user from demons.

Terms with Translation

The rank of Liqa Kahənāt (ሊቀ፡ ካህናት፡, ‘Chief of Priests’) is held in high regard among Orthodox Christians.


The daily recitation of the Wəddāse Māryām (ውዳሴ፡ ማርያም፡, Praise of Mary) is common among Orthodox faithful.

Proper Names

Emperor Zarʾa Yāʿəqob died having spent 15 years in the capital he founded, Dabra Bərhān.

Further Examples

The composition of the Argānona Wəddāse (አርጋኖነ፡ ውዳሴ፡, Organ of Praise) is traditionally attributed to Giyorgis of Gāsəč̣č̣ā.

Emperor Zarʾa Yāʿəqob strongly opposed the use of asmāt (አስማት፡) like those found in the Ləfāfa Ṣədq (ልፋፈ፡ ጽድቅ፡, Bandlet of Justification) and other magico-religious texts. Despite his efforts, the use of asmāt continued to be widespread and can even be seen in the present day.